By Bijan Razzaghi
As advanced SAM systems such as the S300,and S400 remain in high demand, older SAM systems continue to be deployed by countries that ether cannot afford new systems or that are blocked by embargoes. These systems include the SA-2 and SA-5 missile systems. These systems are ineffective unless they are used in large volumes and are integrated with modern air defenses systems.
The strategy used by air defense forces that operate these older missiles is to engage each aircraft with between 5-10 missiles which could potentially overwhelm ECM, and Chaff countermeasures. This strategy was used by the Syrian Air Defense Force to shoot down an Israeli Air Force F-16I. North Korea also employs the same strategy integrating the air defense radars to the SA-2,SA-3 and SA-5 systems. North Korea is alleged to possess over 1000 of a combination of these Surface to Air Missiles.
The primary countermeasures for these systems is employing stand off missiles such as the JSOW, JASSM and Popeye, or employing stealth aircraft. In addition these systems are static and are not mounted on vehicles which allows them to detected and engaged easier.Another way to counter these systems is by using low observable or stealth aircraft.
SA-2,SA-3 and SA-5 systems are likely to become entirely obsolete once S-300, 400 systems became more common.